Close-up photography requires good lighting and a light box is an excellent solution. The translucent material of a light box diffuses the light evenly around your subject, softening shadows and eliminating glare.
Hacksaw or Fine‑Cut Wood Saw
File, or 80 to 100 Grit Sandpaper (optional)
2 ‑ 1/2" x 10' PVC Sch 40 Plain End Pipe (need 12')
Cut the PVC pipe to the lengths specified in the diagram below. Clean the burrs from the ends of each piece with a file or sandpaper.
Lay all the pieces on a flat surfice and dry fit. The pieces fit together quite snuggly and don't require cement to hold their form.
To eliminate the numerous reflections on the smooth curved surface of this sculpture, I draped a semi‑opaque white shower curtain over everything (light box, camera, me). The white backdrop is a sheet of poster board taped to the frame of the light box.
This is a Richard Kramer sculpture entitled Achiever. It's showing some light rust on the rough surfaces, so I applied the Lightroom preset Creative ‑ B&W Low Contrast.
Perhaps the most common use of mod_rewrite is to make URLs easier to type, easier to remember, and easier to tell someone over the phone. This can be accomplished very simply with a single RewriteRule. mod_rewrite isn't hard at all. Regular expressions appear—at first glance—to be diabolically difficult.
mod_rewrite is built on top of the Perl Compatible Regular Expression (PCRE) vocabulary, and a basic grasp of regular expressions is essential when you compose your RewriteRule(s). Or you could spend a day and a half copying blindly—as I did—with literally no comprehension of the regex vocabulary.
In hindsight, there were sevaral things I could have done to save a lot of time.
First: Absolute vs Relative Paths
If you're not targeting the default document set in the DirectoryIndex Directive (usually index.php|html), you must use absolute paths to css, js, and image files (etc.) in your PHP/HTML document.
If your images and stylesheets don't load but everything else seems fine, the path is likely your problem. For example:
What is the context (server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess)? See 'What is matched?' in the RewriteRule Directive section of the mod_rewrite reference documentation. On my local machine the context is VirtualHost. In most of the examples I found (and copied) the context was Directory or .htaccess.
Third: Pattern, Substitution and Flags
The pattern is a regular expression specifying which incoming URLs should be affected by the rule.
Regular Expression Vocabulary
^ Called an anchor, matches the beginning of the string ( ) Groups several characters into a single unit, and captures a match for use in a backreference . Matches any single character * Repeats the previous match zero or more times
The substitution can contain backreferences to parts of the incoming URL‑path matched by the pattern. The value of the backreference is captured in a special variable, $1. Note: When using RewriteRule, the variables are prefixed with a dollar sign ($), but when using RewriteCond, they are prefixed with a percent sign (%).
Adding the No Case, or [NC], flag to any RewriteRule makes that rule case insensitive. The Last, or [L], flag indicates that the end of the rewriting process has been reached, and no further transitions should be applied to the requested URL.
Explanation of Solution
Pattern: ^/gallery/(.*) Match a string that begins with /gallery/. Capture everything after /gallery/ and group it into a single unit (.*) for use as a backreference.
Anything appearing after /gallery/
as captured in the backreference $1
will be given as a query string argument ?gal=
Rewritten URL is /gallery.php?gal=tour2013
Flags: [NC,L] Case-insensitive (NC) pattern matching will be slightly slower. The default behavior of the RewriteRule directive is to be case sensitive. The L flag is only useful when several rules are chained together in a single logical unit. It's good form to use this flag even when just a single rule is used; it's more of a reminder for you than for mod_rewrite.
Remember to restart Apache after making a change to the configuration file. On my local machine, the instruction is sudo apachectl restart. On the server I usually use sudo apachectl -k graceful.
Please…Take my Advice; I Rarely use It.
A little reading from the list below may result in a sudden, intuitive perception of, or insight into, the essential meaning of regular expressions. Yup, magic. From muggle to witch/wizard.
This morning I had to combine 35 PDF files into a single PDF, and wanted to take advantage of the "Always add bookmarks to Adobe PDF" option.
When combining documents, the Zoom level of the document is not respected and defaults to "Page Width" in the bookmark's Actions property. Editing each bookmark individually—nine (9) mouse clicks per bookmark—is very tedious.
Unbelievably, there's a very simple solution…AppleScript. Type the following into the AppleScript Editor (called Script Editor in versions of Mac OS X prior to 10.6 Snow Leopard), compile and run, and—presto—job done.